REHVA Journal â€“ December
The full length version of this article is available at the journal website http://www.rehva.eu/en/rehva-european-hvac-journal
EnergyEfficiency and EnvironmentalSpecialist, Energoprojekt
ENTEL, Belgrade, Serbia, email@example.com
EnergyGeneration and Energy Efficiency Specialist, Energoprojekt ENTEL, Belgrade, Serbia,
In order to contribute to global initiatives for reducing energy consumption through energy efficiency increase, Serbia has adopted a set of related national regulations and invested in several large energy-efficient projects targeting the sector of public buildings. Since inefficient or inappropriate energy use in public buildings was often found to be coupled with compromised indoor comfort conditions, national energy efficiency projects have been particularly designed to target facilities providing services to the most vulnerable population, such as schools, health care and social care institutions. Implementation of high technical norms related to building elements and equipment to be installed when conducting energy efficient refurbishments has proven to be highly beneficial with respect to both energy savings and improved comfort conditions. Reduced emissions and use of renewable energy sources were found to be of high importance as well.
Inefficiency in the use of energy
Energy shortage, energy conservation, energy efficiency â€“ the terms we hear more and more often when discussing somewhat grim predictions about the future of global energy supply, energy security and environmental problems associated with energy generation. Together with increased reliance on renewable energy sources, energy efficiency increase was recognized as one of the measures that can lead to somewhat better energy future if implemented systematically and methodically.
Inefficient use of energy represents a
major concern in
In line with global attempts,
Serbia Energy Efficiency Project (SEEP)
Public sector has been identified as a
sector that needs to set an exemplary role in the implementation of energy
efficiency measures , . In line with such intention,
Table 1.The scope of Serbia Energy Efficiency Project (SEEP).
Phase one (SEEP1)
Phase two (SEEP2)
Schools (elementary and secondary education level)
Health care institutions
Social care institutions
Legend:Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â schoolsÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â health care institutionsÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â social care institutions
Figure 1. Locations of public buildings included in the scope of SEEP project
Energy Saving Opportunities Identified
Measures implemented in public buildings
included in the scope of SEEP project have been selected so as to provide the
best cost-effective building refurbishment i.e. to result in the largest energy
savings in the shortest span of time. Individual measures included intervention on
building envelope, boiler room modernization, fuel switch (natural gas as an
alternative to coal or fuel oil), installation of thermostatic radiator and
balancing valves, installation of variable flow pumps and automatic control
systems. Although energy audit of each building enabled identification of all feasible refurbishment
measures, only the cost-optimal combination of energy
efficient improvements was implemented.
It should be mentioned that replacement of worn out faÃ§ade joinery and installation of thermostatic valves have found their way into the most of implemented energy efficiency packages, as seen in Table 2. This demonstrates particularly poor condition of fenestration systems prior to refurbishments, whose replacement, apart from resulting in significant energy savings, considerably improved end-user comfort by reducing infiltration. Installation of thermostatic radiator valves enabled heating regulation and prevented potential overheating in buildings whose heat loses were considerably reduced. On the other hand, fuel switch, as financially, administratively and technically more complex and demanding, was implemented only in one social care institution in the town of PanÄ�evo, located near the capital city of Belgrade, where new gas-fired boiler was installed to replace light fuel oil fired boiler utilized previously. This was deemed largely beneficial for local population, having in mind that PanÄ�evo inhabitants frequently struggle with elevated pollution levels due to large industrial complexes, including oil refinery, petrochemical plant and fertilizer factory, located and operating in the very town of PanÄ�evo.
Table 2. Individual measures applied in the buildings included in the scope of SEEP2 project.
Type of measure
Share of buildings where measure
roof/flat roof insulation
thermostatic radiator valves
variable flow pumps
Energy savings achieved in each group of buildings are depicted in Figure 2. Clinical Centre of the City of NiÅ¡ is presented as an individual building group since it represents a 19-building complex. As seen in Figure 2, in average, 47% energy consumption reduction has been achieved in 62 refurbished public buildings. Although the consumption values presented surely leave room for additional improvements, it is important to mention that only a small handful of buildings have been fitted with full set of energy efficiency measures, while majority were only fitted with a couple of improvements selected as the cost-effective refurbishment solution. This was mainly due to budgetary constraints as well as situations when end-users failed to conduct prerequisite repair works that were deemed necessary in order to implement certain energy efficiency improvement. In addition, facilities were required to remain fully operational during the entire work execution, which significantly slowed down the works and was particularly challenging in case of health care and social care institutions.
Figure 2. Annual energy savings achieved in public buildings included in the scope of SEEP2 project.
It is also worth mentioning that measurements conducted in some of the refurbished schools prior to improvements have indicated that indoor temperatures in the classrooms were only 15â€¦16Â°C. The fact that proper indoor temperatures were measured following the refurbishments points out to the conclusion that energy savings achieved have been reduced by the fact that portion of potentially â€œsavedâ€� energy needed to be used to provide required indoor conditions and necessary end-user comfort.
Savings achieved in health care facilities are particularly important when considering the overall annual energy consumption, since hospital heating systems are designed to operate continuously i.e. 24/7 and achieve higher indoor temperatures when compared to social care institutions and particularly when compared to schools whose heating systems are usually completely shut-down (or operate at reduced capacity) during overnight/ weekend and holiday periods. This is more evident when specifying that absolute annual energy consumption of 62 considered buildings have been reduced by 29.114 MWh in total, where 64% of this annual value is attributed to savings achieved in 29 health care institutions, while 29% comes from the savings achieved in 28 schools. The remaining 7% results from refurbishments carried out in 5 social care institutions.
Economics of energy savings
Investment costs associated with execution of energy efficiency improvements amounted to 11.6 million EUR, where 47% of the funds was used to increase energy efficiency in schools, while 6% to improve situation in social care institutions, as seen in Figure 3. Interestingly enough, the identical 47% of the funds enabled improvements of health care institutions (individual hospitals and the complex of Clinical Centre of NiÅ¡) although significantly larger area was services (total heated area of the health care institutions amounted to about 124 000 mÂ² in contrast to total heated area of the schools that reached approximately 70 800 mÂ²).
Figure 3. Investment costs and simple payback period associated with SEEP2 refurbishments.
Analysis of financial data points out to
the conclusion that such situation was attributed to much complex layout of the
schools considered, with many of them requiring additional repair or fine works
in order to enable proper implementation of intended energy saving measures. With respect to simple pay back
period (SPBP) of the investment made, Figure 3aboveillustrates that predominant use of low-price
domestic coal, as in the Clinical Centre of NiÅ¡, resulted in SPBP of over 13
years. On the other hand, reduced consumption of expensive fuel, such as fuel
oil, enables faster return on investment, evident in case of social care
institutions. Higher SPBP associated with energy efficient refurbishment of
educational institutions results from higher investment costs associated with
reasons mentioned earlier.
Apart from energy savings and financial benefits achieved, environmental effects, reflected through reduced CO2 emissions, and social benefits, manifested through increased public awareness about the energy efficient refurbishments, were deemed to be equally important.
Use of renewable energy sources
Besides SEEP project, Serbian public
authorities have invested or have planned to invest in a number of similar
refurbishment projects, with many of them aimed towards replacing traditionally
used fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. For example, in 2008, a 14 kW
heat pump based heating system, with energy extracted from the nearby well, was installed to heat elementary school in a village near
the town of Varvarin in Central-Eastern Serbia. In
addition, 35 kW solar collectors have been installed on the roof of
Railway Student Housing building in Belgrade, generating energy sufficient to
meet 63% of total heat demand of the facility mentioned. Installation of 28 kW
solar collector system on the roof of an elementary
A recent study, conducted with a goal to promote the use of geothermal energy in balneology, has shown that refurbishment of building envelope of Rehabilitation Centre in MataruÅ¡ka Spa in Central Serbia would enable heat demand of the Centre to be reduced by 57%, thereby enabling a 96 kW heat pump utilizing locally available geothermal water to replace the existing 740 kW liquid fuel fired boiler . Even if financial constraints manage to prevent the planned building refurbishment to be carried out, a 220 kW heat pump is deemed to be sufficient to meet the current energy demand of the facility considered.
Combined heat and power generation
of the Serbian national energy efficiency initiative, a 6.5 million EUR worth project was carried out in the Clinical Centre
of Serbia, the top medical care, research and educational institution in the
country. The Centre
comprises 23 specialist clinics and 9 emergency and other centres housed in 76
buildings located in the very centre of the capital city
Based on the result achieved in the projects specified, it is concluded that implementation of energy efficiency improvements in public buildings in Serbia, as well as implementation of energy efficient technologies and use of renewable energy sources, has proven to be highly beneficial, both with respect to reduced energy consumption and carbon footprint, as well as associated financial and social benefits. In fact, following well documented success of energy efficiency projects conducted up to date, Serbia is now in the process of selecting another 56 public building that will be refurbished in energy efficient manner. Taken together, it may be concluded that energy efficiency projects carried out in Serbia demonstrate benefits of national energy-related policies and measures promoted through national legislation and carefully selected financial incentives.
Â Â Â Â Â Â ***The World Bank â€“ Serbian Partnership Program Snapshot, October 2012, http://www.worldbank.org
Â Â Â Â Â Â TodoroviÄ‡ M.S., National Energy Efficiency Action Plan of
Â Â Â Â Â Â ***Directive 2006/32/EC on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services, Official Journal of the European Union, 2006, Brussels, Belgium.
Â Â Â Â Â Â ***Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the
Council on Energy Efficiency and Repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC,
Â Â Â Â Â Â Serbia Energy Efficiency Project 2 â€“ SEEP2, Final Project Report, Joint Venture BDSP-Energoprojekt, Belgrade, 2012.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Detail Design for Supply and Installation of New Boiler Plant and Auxiliary Equipment in the Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade, Energoprojekt ENTEL, Belgrade, 2007.
Â Â Â Â Â Â RizniÄ‡, D.T., KovaÄ�iÄ‡, B.J., Water Temperature Adjustments in Spas by the Aid of Heat Pumps, Thermal Science, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2012.